Antibiotics: Drug-resistant bacterial infections kills 1.2 million people a year; how much is Bangladesh at risk?

According to a comprehensive study, 1.2 million people worldwide died of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections in 2019.

Research shows that the number of people who die each year from AIDS or malaria is twice that number.

The worst-case scenario is in poorer countries, the study said. However, antimicrobial resistance is a risk to everyone’s health.

To avoid this, we need to invest more in drug research. And it is advisable to be especially careful in applying the current antibiotics.

Indiscriminate use of antibiotics in minor ailments can significantly reduce the effectiveness of antibiotics in severe illnesses.

MRSA bacteria are considered to be the most deadly.
MRSA bacteria are considered to be the most deadly.

People are now dying from all the diseases that used to be cured by common ailments.

The UK Department of Health says antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a secret epidemic.

Health officials have warned that the use of antibiotics could be a significant problem worldwide after the end of the epidemic if left unchecked.

A study on global deaths due to AMR has been published in the renowned health journal Lancet.

International experts led by the University of Washington in the United States conducted the study in 204 countries.

 

Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in the laboratory.
Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in the laboratory.

They calculated that in 2019, 1.2 million people had contracted various diseases directly due to AMR.

In addition, another 5 million people have died of AMR-related illnesses.

Eight hundred and eighty thousand people died of AIDS in the same year. And six lakh 40 thousand people have died of malaria.

The leading causes of death in AMR have been identified as lower respiratory infections such as pneumonia and blood infections, from which sepsis develops.

THIS STUDY IDENTIFIED the MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria as particularly lethal.

Hospitals are struggling to cope with antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections.
Hospitals are struggling to cope with antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections.

The study also found that E. coli and a few other bacteria have developed drug-resistant properties.

Analyzing data from hospitals and patients in different countries, the researchers found that children were at the highest risk.

One in five deaths from AMR is in children under five.

Two notable aspects of the research results:

 

  • The highest death toll is in South Asia and countries south of the Sahara Desert. At least 24 out of every 100,000 people in the region have died.

  • The lowest deaths occurred in high-income countries. There were 13 deaths per one lakh.

Chris Murray, a professor at the University of Washington, says the study paints a realistic picture of the declining effectiveness of antibiotics around the world.

“If we want to survive in this fight, we need to act quickly,” he said.

Washington DC research institute said. Ramanan Laxminarayan says that just as money has to be invested in other diseases, it is necessary to increase the investment to prevent AMR.

There is a crisis of effective and affordable antibiotics around the world. Therefore, political and health leaders need to take this issue seriously.

The sale of antibiotics in pharmacies without a prescription is banned in Bangladesh
The sale of antibiotics in pharmacies without a prescription is banned in Bangladesh

What is the situation in Bangladesh?

Unnecessary use of antibiotics, lack of authority to monitor the use of antibiotics, use of antibiotics in animal feed, vegetables or agriculture – etc. are some of the reasons why the effectiveness of conventional antibiotics in Bangladesh has decreased, say experts.

An ongoing study by the Bangladesh Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research (ICR) found that the effectiveness of at least 17 of the country’s most common antibiotics has been significantly reduced.

Zakir Hossain Habib, chief scientific officer of IEDCR and head of the microbiology department, said many drugs were becoming less effective against bacteria due to uncontrolled antibiotics.

“Ceftriaxone was a very effective antibiotic when we were medical students. But now if you look at the resistance pattern – you will see that at least 60 to 70 percent of the germs we have shown are resistant to this antibiotic.”

Antibiotics that were effective against bacterial infections twenty to thirty years ago have now primarily lost their effectiveness.

“Even antibiotics that were effective against a few bacteria a few days ago are starting to lose their effectiveness,” he said. Habib
“Ipenam, meropenam group drugs were quite effective in Bangladesh even a few years ago. But doctors are also undermining its effectiveness by overdosing on this group of drugs during Kovid.”

Patients and children in ICUs are at risk due to reduced efficiency
Patients and children in ICUs are at risk due to reduced efficiency

Mr. “If this group of drugs loses its effectiveness, we will no longer have too many antibiotics on our hands,” Habib said.

According to Habib, the most frightening thing is the presence of germs in hospitals in Bangladesh that are resistant to all kinds of antibiotics. This means that no antibiotic will be effective against that bacterium.

Guidelines for the effectiveness of antibiotics and the type of germs in the body of patients in Bangladeshi hospitals. citing a study. “We have divided the germs into three categories – multi-drug resistant, extensible drug-resistant and pan drug resistant – of which pan drug-resistant is a bacterium against which no antibiotic is effective,” Habib said.

“It’s not possible to treat with any conventional antibiotics – about seven percent of the germs have been found.”

What causes antibiotic resistance?

Mr According to Habib, the lack of a basic concept of infection prevention and structural environment is one of the main reasons for creating antimicrobial resistance in Bangladesh.

“In Bangladesh, in reality, hospitals, especially government hospitals, are the main habitat for germs and the main places for spreading infections. Hospitals are always crowded and the spread of germs spreads fast there,” he said.

Physicians believe that lack of basic concept of infection prevention and structural environment is one of the main reasons for the development of antimicrobial resistance in Bangladesh.
Physicians believe that lack of basic concept of infection prevention and structural environment is one of the main reasons for the development of antimicrobial resistance in Bangladesh.

“Physicians prescribe more antibiotics to patients after surgery because of hospital burdens, so that they do not become infected. Because in human burdens, a complex patient is more likely to be infected with a variety of diseases.”
He also mentioned that in every hospital in the country, a patient is given a specific list of antibiotics. The lack of research on the subject is one of the reasons for the formation of antibiotic resistance in the long run. Habib.

At the consumer level, antibiotics play a valuable role in building resistance, even without the authority to monitor the sale and purchase of national drugs.

There are several other reasons why antibiotics are resistant, the main ones being —

Frequent use of antibiotics without a prescription

Antibiotics do not work if you stop taking antibiotics halfway through the course.

If antibiotics are given in lower doses than needed

In any viral disease, that is, in cases where it would be cured after a certain period, especially in children with antibiotics.

Ferdous Anwar Anik

Ferdous Anwar Anik Is a Medical certified Pharmacist.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Back to top button